Main Article Content
Financial institutes are considered the main key players in the overall economy of the country and in recent years, Pakistan has observed a high growth rate in banking in terms of numbers of banks, products they have offered and quality services because of strict regulations by the controlling authorities e.g. State Bank of Pakistan, Securities & Exchange Commission of Pakistan etc. This study aims to shed light on the impact of organizational factors e.g. Workplace Conflict, Boss Support, Work Over Load, Work-life Imbalance, and Role Conflict on banker’s health issues, Depression, Emotional Exhaustion, Turnover Intentions and Performance. A sample of 100 bankers from two different private sector banks of Peshawar (Pakistan) completed a structured questionnaire. We divided our model in two phases to test it accordingly using SPSS. In phase 1, the results show that work-life imbalance and work overload have highly significant positive impact on most of the dependent variables. In phase two, Depression and Emotional Exhaustion with a significant impact on Turnover Intentions and Organizational Commitment. Based on the results, some recommendations have been suggested for the bankers to reduce the negative impact of work over load and work-life imbalance on their health, augment the performance and reduce the turnover intentions.
Al-Aameri A.S., (2003). Source of job stress for nurses in public hospitals, Saudi Medical Journal, 24(11), 1183-1187.
Anwar, S., Tawab,R., Kinza, Sami, A. (2020). A Systematic Review Of Impact Of Employee Engagement On Organizational Performance. Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis Journal 1 (1), 1-6
Ashraf, M., Ahmad, N., & Mangi, A. R. (2019). Study of Work related Stress and Job Satisfaction among Female Bankers. Pakistan Business Review, 20(4), 1037-1050.
Arasli, H., & Tumer, M. (2008). Nepotism, Favoritism and Cronyism: A study of their effects on job stress and job satisfaction in the banking industry of north Cyprus. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 36(9), 1237-1250.
Ashfaq, S., Mahmood, Z., & Ahmad, M. (2013). Impact of Work-Life Conflict and Work over load on Employee Performance in Banking Sector of Pakistan. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 14(5), 688-695.
Bajpai, N., & Srivastava, D. (2004). Sectorial comparison of factors influencing job satisfaction in Indian banking sector. Singapore Management Review, 26(2), 89.
Beck, A. T., Ward, C. D., Mendelson, M., Mock J. and Erbaugh J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression, Archives of General Psychology, (4), 561-571.
Burke, R. (2002). Technology and the Customer Interface: What Consumers Want in the Physical and Virtual Store. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 30(4), 411-421.
Burton, J. P., Lee, T. W., & Holtom, B. C. (2002). The influence of motivation to attend, ability to attend, and organizational commitment on different types of absence behaviors. Journal of Managerial Issues, 181-197.
Bushra, F., Ahmad, U., & Naveed, A. (2011). Effect of transformational leadership on employees' job satisfaction and organizational commitment in banking sector of Lahore (Pakistan). International journal of Business and Social science, 2(18).
Cherniss C. (1980), Staff Burnout - Job stress in the human services, Beverly Hills. Sage Publications.
Cherniss, C. (1995) Beyond Burnout, London, Routledge.
De, C., & Einar, M. (2002). Job stress, fatigue, and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers towards an occupation specific model of job demands and control. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 59.6, 356-361.
Devereux, J. M., Hastings, R. P., Noone, S. J., Firth, A., & Totsika, V. (2009). Social support and coping as mediators or moderators of the impact of work stressors on burnout in intellectual disability support staff. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30(2), 367-377.
Doyle, E. and Christines. (2003). Work and Organizational Psychology, An. Introduction With attitude: Psychology Press, Taylor and Francis Group.111-158.
Edwards, J. R., & Rothbard, N. P. (1999). Work and family stress and well-being: An examination of person-environment fit in the work and family domains. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 77(2), 85-129.
Fournier, P. S., Montreuil, S., Villa, J. (2013). Contribution à un modèle explicatif de la charge de travail: le cas du service à la clientèle. Relations Industrielles/Industrial Relations, 68(1), 46-70.
Freudenberger H.J. (1974). Staff burnout”, Journal of Social Issues, 30 (1), p. 159–165.
Glass, J. Camarigg, V. (1992). Gender, parenthood, and job-family compatibility. American Journal of Sociology, 98, 131–151.
Gomes, T. C., Estivalete, V. D. F. B., & Ramadam, A. O. (2020). Organizational justice and stress at work of bankers. Revista Psicologia Organizações e Trabalho, 20(2), 994-1001.
Goldberger D. (1978). Manual of the General Health Questionnaire, (Oxford, England: NFER.)
Hochschild, A. R. (1997). The time bind: When work becomes home and home becomes work. New York: Metropolitan Books.
Hussian, S., & Iraqi, K. M. (2020). How Bankers Become Stress Free Employees: A Study on Bankers’ Working Environment. Research Journal of Supply Chain & Business Management, 1(1).
Hussain, S. T., Lei, S., Abideen, Z., & Hussain, S. H. (2015). Motivation in the Perspective of Self Determination Theory (SDT) between Work Environment and Job Satisfaction in Banking Sector. International Business Research, 8(11), 39.
Iacovides, A., Fountoulakis, K. N., Kaprinis, S., & Kaprinis, G. (2003). The relationship between job stress, burnout and clinical depression. Journal of affective disorders, 75(3), 209-221.
Iacovides, A., Fountoulakis, K.N., Moysidou, Ch., and Ierodiakonou Ch. (1999). Burnout in nursing staff: is there a relationship between depression and burnout? Int. J. Psychiatry Med. 29, 421–433.
Islam, T., Ahmad, U., Bt, U. N., Ali, G., Ahmed, I., & Bowra, Z. A. (2013). Turnover Intentions: The Influence of Perceived Organizational Support and Organizational Commitment. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 103, 1238-1242.
Kahn, R. L., Wolfe, D. M., Quinn, R. P., Snoek, J. D., & Rosenthal, R. A. (1964). Organizational stress: Studies in role conflict and ambiguity, New York: John Wiley.
Kolb B., & Whishaw, I. Q. (2001), An Introduction to Brain and Behaviour, New York: Worth
Kowalski, C., Driller, E., Ernstmann, N., Alich, S., Karbach, U., Ommen, O., ... & Pfaff, H. (2010). Associations between emotional exhaustion, social capital, workload, and latitude in decision-making among professionals working with people with disabilities. Research in developmental disabilities, 31(2), 470-479.
Laschinger, Heather , K., & Spence. (2013). A longitudinal analysis of the impact of workplace empowerment on work satisfaction. Journal of Organizational Behavior 25.4, 527-545.
Lazarus, R. S. (1993). From psychological stress to the emotions: A history of a changing outlook. Annual Review of Psychology, 44: 1-21.
Mackay, C. J., Cousins, R., Kelly, P. J., Lee, S., & Mc Caig, R. H. (2004). Management Standards and work related stress in the UK: Policy and background and science.
Maslach C., Jackson S. E. (1981). The measurement of experienced burnout, Journal of Occupational Behavior, 2, 99-113.
Mayfield, J., & Mayfield, M. (2007). The creative environment's influence on intent to turnover: A structural equation model and analysis. Management Research News, 31(1), 41-56.
Meyer, J. P., Allen, N. J., & Smith, C. A. (1993). Commitment to organizations and occupations: Extension and test of a three-component conceptualization. Journal of applied psychology, 78(4), 538.
Misra, V. (2012). The Study of Reasons of Stress Among Human Capital in Delhi. Astitva International Journal of Commerce, Management and Social Sciences, 1(1).
Razzaq, S., Sami, A., Sib-tul-Manum, & Hammad, M. (2020). Transformational Leadership and Organizational Performance in Western & Non-Western Context: Systematic Review of 2019. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Research, 3(3), 58-60.
Rees C. J., Redfern D. (2000). Recognizing the Perceived Causes of Stress: A Training and Development Perspective, Journal of Industrial and Commercial Training, 32 (4, p. 120-127.
Saleem, M. A., & Imran, M. (2014). Relationship between job satisfaction and Job Performance: A case study of Universities of Peshawar District (KPK) Pakistan. European Journal of Business and Management, 6(31), 314-323.
Samuel, M. O., Osinowo, H. O., & Chipunza, C. (2009). The relationship between bank distress, job satisfaction, perceived stress and psychological well-being of employees and depositors in Nigeria’s banking sector. African Journal of Business Management, 3(11), 624-632.
Schultz, P., & Wesley. (2010). New Environmental Theories Empathizing With Nature: The Effects of Perspective Taking on Concern for Environmental Issues. Journal of social issues 56, 391-406.
Sethi, M., Iqbal, H., & Rauf, M.O. (2014). Relationship between perceived organizational justice employees job satisfaction, Abasyn Journal of Social Sciences 7 (1), 103-120.
Selye H. (1956). The stress of life, New York: McGraw-Hill.
Shahid M. N, Latif, K., Sohail, N., Ashraf M. A. (2012) Work stress and employee performance in banking sector evidence from district Faisalabad, Pakistan. Asian Journal of Business and Management Sciences ISSN: 2047-2528, 1(7), 38-47.
So-Kum Tung, C., Au, W. T., Schwarzer, R. & Schmitz, G. (2001). Mental health outcomes of job stress among Chinese teachers: role of stress resource factors and burnout, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 22 (8): 887-901.
Terluin B., Van Rhenen W., Schaufeli W.B., De Haan M. (2004). The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ): Measuring distress in a working population, Work and Stress, 18, p. 187–207.
Usmani, M., Sami, A., Baig, S,A., & Irfan, A. (2019). Chronological studies of lean and leadership for improvement of organizational performance, Journal of Public Value and Administration Insights, 2(2), 15-19.
Ul Haq, N., & Nosheen, S. (2021). Impact of Corporate Governance Mechanisms, Firms Risk and Performance on Disclosure Quality: Evidence from Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 2(1), 58-81.
Von Onciul, J., (1996). Stress at Work, British Medical Journal, 313 (7059), 745-48.