Main Article Content
etection of primary liver cancers (hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma) at an early stage is crucial for a better outcome. To this purpose, there is a great need to identify new markers for early diagnosis.
A tumor marker would be helpful in diagnosis, early detection, staging, prognosis, and follow-up after therapy. However, due to the lack of sensitivity and specificity, no currently available single marker performs ideally in all situations; performance characteristics depend on specific aspects of each cancer, such as prevalence, tumorheterogeneity, and response to the treatment. Technical advances in molecular biology are providing new gateways for the detection of tumor markers, opening a field with rapid evolution. Acknowledging that the perfect tumor marker has not been yet recognized, it is important to investigate characteristics of what might be an ideal tumor marker for malignancies.
Heo CK, Bahk YY, Cho EW. Tumor-associated autoantibodies as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. BMB Rep. 2012 Dec;45(12):677-85.
Watanapa P, Watanapa W (2002). "Liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma". Br J Surg 89 (8): 962–70.
Imai H, Nakano Y, Kiyosawa K, Tan EM. Increasing titers and changing specificities of antinuclear antibodies in patients with chronic liver disease who develop hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer 1993;71:26–35.
Shaib Y, El-Serag H, Davila J, Morgan R, McGlynn K (2005). "Risk factors of intrahepatic
cholangiocarcinoma in the United States: a case-control study". Gastroenterology 128 (3):6206.
Green A, Uttaravichien T, Bhudhisawasdi V, Chartbanchachai W, Elkins DB, Marieng EO, Pairqjkul C, Dhiensiri T, Kanteekaew N, Haswell-Elkins MR. Cholangiocarcinoma in north east Thailand. A hospital-based study. Trop Geogr Med. 1991 Jan-Apr;43(1-2):193-8.
de Groen PC, Gores GJ, LaRusso NF, et al. Biliary tract cancers. N Engl J Med 1999; 341:1368.
Sripa B, Kaewkes S, Sithithaworn P, Mairiang E, Laha T, Smout M, Pairojkul C, Bhudhisawasdi V, Tesana S, Thinkamrop B, Bethony JM, Loukas A, Brindley PJ. Liver fluke induces cholangiocarcinoma. PLoS Med. 2007 Jul;4(7):e201.
Dhakshinamoorthy Ganeshan, Fanny E Moron, Janio Szklaruk. Extrahepatic biliary cancer: New staging classification. World J Radiol. 2012 August 28; 4(8): 345–352.
Khan SA, Davidson BR, Goldin R, Pereira SP, Rosenberg WM, Taylor-Robinson SD, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of cholangiocarcinoma: consensus document. Gut 2002;51 (Suppl. 6):VI1–VI9.
Tan EM. Autoantibodies as reporters identifying aberrant cellular mechanisms in tumorigenesis. J Clin Invest. 2001 Nov; 108(10):1411-5.
Sahin U, Tureci O, Schmitt H, et al. Human neoplasms elicit multiple specific immune responses in the autologous host. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1995;92:11810-3.
Lee SY, Obata Y, Yoshida M, et al. Immunomic analysis of human sarcoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003;100:2651-6.
Finn OJ. Immune response as a biomarker for cancer detection and a lot more. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:1288–1290.
Koziol JA, Zhang JY, Casiano CA, et al. Recursive partitioning as an approach to selection of immune markers for tumor diagnosis. Clin Cancer Res 2003;9:5120-6.
H, Marto JA, Hoffmann TK, et al. Identification of cyclin B1 as a shared human epithelial tumor-associated antigen recognized by T cells. J Exp Med 2001;194:1313-23.
Suzuki H, Graziano DF, McKolanis J, Finn OJ. T cell-dependent antibody responses against aberrantly expressed cyclin B1 protein in patients with cancer and premalignant disease. Clin Cancer Res 2005;11:1521-6.
Houghton AN: Cancer antigens: immune recognition of self and altered self. J Exp Med 1994, 180(1):1–4.
Old LJ, Chen YT: New paths in human cancer serology. J Exp Med 1998, 187(8):1163–1167.
Zhang JY, Looi KS, Tan EM. Identification of tumor-associated antigens as diagnostic and predictive biomarkers in cancer. Methods Mol Biol. 2009;520:1-10.
Liu W, Peng B, Lu Y, Xu W, Qian W, Zhang JY. Autoantibodies to tumor-associated antigens as biomarkers in cancer immunodiagnosis. Autoimmun Rev. 2011 Apr;10(6):331-5.
Zhu Q, Liu M, Dai L, Ye H, Han S, Zhang JY. Using immunoproteomics to identify tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) as biomarkers in cancer immunodiagnosis. Autoimmun Rev. 2013 Jun 24. pii: S1568-9972(13)00119-5. doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2013.06.015. [Epub ahead of print]
K.S. Anderson, J. LaBaer. The sentinel within: exploiting the immune system for cancer biomarkers. J Proteome Res, 4 (2005), pp. 1123–1133.
J.Y. Zhang, C.A. Casiano, X.X. Peng, J.A. Koziol, E.K.L. Chan, E.M. Tan. Enhancement of antibody detection in cancer using panel of recombinant tumor-associated antigens. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 12 (2003), pp. 136–143.
Weihong Liu, Bo Peng, Yumin Lu, Weijia Xu, Wei Qian, and Jian-Ying Zhang.
Autoantibodies to tumor-associated antigens as biomarkers in cancer immunodiagnosis. Autoimmun Rev. 2011 April; 10(6): 331–335.
Bradford TJ, Wang X, Chinnaiyan AM: Cancer immunomics: using autoantibody signatures in the early detection of prostate cancer. Urol Oncol 2006, 24(3):237–242.
Draghici S, Chatterjee M, Tainsky MA: Epitomics: serum screening for the early detection of cancer on microarrays using complex panels of tumor antigens. Expert Rev Mol Diagn 2005, 5(5):735–743.
Görg, A., Postel, W., Weser, J., Günther, S., Strahler, J.R., Hanash, S.M., Somerlot, L. Elimination of point streaking on silver stained two-dimensional gels by addition of iodoacetamide to the equilibration buffer. Electrophoresis 8, 122–124 (1987).
Feldman, Mark, et al. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Science, 2002.
Bragazzi MC, Cardinale V, Carpino G, Venere R, Semeraro R, Gentile R, Gaudio E, Alvaro D. Cholangiocarcinoma: Epidemiology and risk factors. Transl Gastrointest Cancer 2012;1:21-32.
Mustafa MZ, Nguyen VH, Le Naour F, De Martin E, Beleoken E, Guettier C, Johanet C, Samuel D, Duclos-Vallee JC, Ballot E. Autoantibody signatures defined by serological proteome analysis in sera from patients with cholangiocarcinoma. Journal of translational medicine. 2016 Dec;14(1):1-5.
Broome U, Olsson R, Loof L, Bodemar G, Hultcrantz R, Danielsson A, et al. Natural history and
prognostic factors in 305 Swedish patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. Gut 1996;38:610–615.
Malhi H, Gores GJ. Cholangiocarcinoma: modern advances in understanding a deadly old disease. J Hepatol. 2006 Dec;45(6):856-67. Epub 2006 Sep 25.
Annette Michalski, Eugen Damoc, Jan-Peter Hauschild, Oliver Lange, Andreas Wieghaus, Alexander Makarov, Nagarjuna Nagaraj, Juergen Cox, Matthias Mann, Stevan Horning. Mass Spectrometry-based Proteomics Using Q Exactive, a High-performance Benchtop Quadrupole Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2011 September; 10(9): M111.011015
Makarov A. Electrostatic axially harmonic orbital trapping: a high-performance technique of mass analysis. Anal Chem. 2000 Mar 15;72(6):1156-62.
Wilkinson, J.M. (1986) “Fragmentation of Polypeptides by Enzymic Methods”. In: Practical Protein Chemistry: A Handbook. A. Darbre, ed., John Wiley and Sons, New York, N.Y.
Rodriguez J, Gupta N, Smith RD, Pevzner PA (2008). "Does trypsin cut before proline?". J. Proteome Res. 7 (1): 300–305.
Viner RI, Zhang T, et al . Quantification of post-translationally modified peptides of bovine alpha-crystallin using tandem mass tags and electron transfer dissociation. J Proteomics. 2009 Jul 21;72(5):874-85.
Nagaraj N, Kulak NA, et al. System-wide perturbation analysis with nearly complete coverage of the yeast proteome by single-shot ultra HPLC runs on a bench top Orbitrap.. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2012 Mar;11(3):M111.013722.
Jedrychowski MP, Huttlin EL, et al. Evaluation of HCD- and CID-type fragmentation within their respective detection platforms for murine phosphoproteomics. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2011 Dec;10(12):M111.009910.
Swaney DL, McAlister GC, Coon JJ. Nat Methods. Decision tree-driven tandem mass spectrometry for shotgun proteomics. 2008 Nov;5(11):959-64.
Wilson-Grady JT, Villén J, Gygi SP.Phosphoproteome Analysis of Fission Yeast. J Proteome Res. 2008 Mar;7(3):1088-97.
Yates JR, Ruse CI, Nakorchevsky A Proteomics by mass spectrometry: approaches, advances, and applications..Annu Rev Biomed Eng. 2009;11:49-79.
Phanstiel D, Brumbaugh J, et al.Mass spectrometry identifies and quantifies 74 unique histone H4 isoforms in differentiating human embryonic stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Mar 18;105(11):4093-8.
Swaney DL, McAlister GC, Coon JJ.Decision tree-driven tandem mass spectrometry for shotgun proteomics. Nat Methods. 2008 Nov;5(11):959-64.
Sciascia S, Amigo MC, Roccatello D, Khamashta M. Diagnosing antiphospholipid syndrome:'extra-criteria'manifestations and technical advances. Nature Reviews Rheumatology. 2017 Sep;13(9):548-60.
Reuschenbach M, von Knebel Doeberitz M, Wentzensen N. A systematic review of humoral immune responses against tumor antigens. Cancer immunology, immunotherapy. 2009 Oct 1;58(10):1535.
Lancaster E, Martinez-Hernandez E, Dalmau J. Encephalitis and antibodies to synaptic and neuronal cell surface proteins. Neurology. 2011 Jul 12;77(2):179-89.
Tan HT, Low J, Lim SG, Chung MC. Serum autoantibodies as biomarkers for early cancer detection. The FEBS journal. 2009 Dec;276(23):6880-904.
Dumstrei K, Chen H, Brenner H. A systematic review of serum autoantibodies as biomarkers for pancreatic cancer detection. Oncotarget. 2016 Mar 8;7(10):11151.